Overcoming Communication Barriers Between People

When you send a message, you intend to communicate meaning, but the message itself does not contain meaning. The meaning exists in your mind and in the mind of your receiver. To understand one another, you and your receiver must share similar meanings for words, gestures, tone of voice, and other symbols.

1. Differences in perception

The world constantly bombards us with information: sights, sounds, scents, and so on. Our minds organize this stream of sensation into a mental map that represents our perception or reality. In no case is the perception of a certain person the same as the world itself, and no two maps are identical. As you view the world, your mind absorbs your experiences in a unique and personal way. Because your perceptions are unique, the ideas you want to express differ from other people's Even when two people have experienced the same event, their mental images of that event will not be identical. As senders, we choose the details that seem important and focus our attention on the most relevant and general, a process known as selective perception. As receivers, we try to fit new details into our existing pattern. If a detail does not quite fit, we are inclined to distort the information rather than rearrange the pattern.

2. Incorrect filtering

Filtering is screening out before a message is passed on to someone else. In business, the filters between you and your receiver are many; Secretaries, assistants, receptionists, answering machines, etc. Those same gatekeepers may also 'translate' your receiver's ideas and responses before passing them on to you. To overcome filtering barriers, try to establish more than one communication channel, eliminate as many intermediaries as possible, and decrease distortion by condensing message information to the bare essentials.

3. Language problems

When you choose the words for your message, you signal that you are a member of a particular culture or subculture and that you know the code. The nature of your code poses its own barriers on your message. Barriers also exist because words can be interpreted in more than one way. Language is an arbitrary code that depends on shared definitions, but there's a limit to how completely any of us share the same meaning for a given word. To overcome language barriers, use the most specific and accurate words possible. Always try to use words your audience will understand. Increase the accuracy of your messages by using language that describes rather than evaluates and by presenting observable facts, events, and circumstances.

4. Poor listening

Perhaps the most common barrier to reception is simply a lack of attention on the receiver's part. We all let our minds wander now and then, regardless of how hard we try to concentrate. People are especially likely to drift off when they are forced to listen to information that is difficult to understand or that has little direct bearing on their own lives. Too few of us simply do not listen well! To overcome barriers, paraphrase what you have understood, try to view the situation through the eyes of other speakers and resist jumping to conclusions. Clarify meaning by asking non-threatening questions, and listen without interrupting.

5. Differing emotional states

Every message contains both a content meaning, which deals with the subject of the message, and a relationship meaning, which suggests the nature of the interaction between sender and receiver. Communication can break down when the receiver reacts negatively to either of these meanings. You may have to deal with people when they are upset or when you are. An upset person tends to ignore or distort what the other person is saying and is often unable to present feelings and ideas effectively. This is not to say that you should avoid all communication when you are emotionally involved, but you should be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that companies made aroused emotions. To overcome emotional barriers, be aware of the feelings that arise in your self and in others as you communicate, and attempt to control them. Most important, be alert to the greater potential for misunderstanding that companies emotional messages.

6. Differenting backgrounds

Differences in background can be one of the hardest communication barriers to overcome. Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, even a passing mood can separate one person from another and make understanding difficult. To overcome the barriers associated with varying backgrounds, avoid projecting your own background or culture onto others. Clarify your own and understand the background of others, spheres of knowledge, personalities and perceptions and do not assume that certain behaviors mean the same thing to everyone.

Source by Martin Hahn

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The Biggest Reality About Social Media

Two groups of people will not like reading this – first, those who are looking for the magic pill to have massive fans. Secondly, those social media "experts" who are pushing their courses and solutions for the magic pill.

But before that, a quick question … do you realize that * almost * everyone is claiming to be a social media / Facebook expert nowdays?

It's interesting because they feel like they know how to use (or play) Facebook, they're labeling them as the "experts". Even many "experts" or social media company are NOT experts, even if they do it for Nestle or Angelina Jolie (you'll understand why after reading this rant).

It's rather simpler to brand themselves as "Facebook experts" or "digital media companies" because these terms are vague – if you call yourself a best-selling author, you need to BE a best-selling author. If you promote yourself as an internet millionaire, then you have to BE an internet millionaire.

Here's the harsh reality – there is no magic pill that will allow you to have hundreds of thousands of fans on your Facebook fan page, period. Read all of the courses you want, attend all of the seminars you need … you will not find that magic pill.

So how do they get massive fans then?

The thing is, unless you are a celebrity or a well-known brand, you will not be able to accumulate the number of fans that these fan pages have. If you are just an ordinary guy (meaning you do not have an Angelina Jolie brand attached to you), you'll have to spend money to get your fans, like buying Facebook ads. And you'll end up a broken marketer if you do not have a strategy in place to monetize on them. Then we have problem # 2 – how to monetize?

There are Facebook marketers who sell their courses by displaying how they helped celebrities or big brands. But come on … do you think it's because of their strategies or because the Starbucks brand by itself AUTOMATICALLY attract people to become fans? You'll be the judge. To give these experts their due credit, even if their strategies are successful, there is nothing special about them – post valuable content, encourage people to discuss about it and share it with others.

Sure, there are so many so called "social media" experts who teach you how to make big bucks with social media. Of course they're doing this! Facebook is a hot trend at the moment and everyone wants to seize the opportunity to make money with it.

But what you should be asking these experts is wherever they have a lot of fans on their fan pages. If you check their fan pages, you'll notice that they do not have so many fans after all.

And if they do, are there any engagement or they're just Likes bought at Fiverr?

It's really funny watching all these Facebook "gurus" or social media "experts" talk about how fantastic their software is and talking AS IF they know about fan page marketing and getting 100,000 or 1,000,000 fans. Then they pitch to you, asking you to pitch to local businesses the same promises! Funny crap.

So there is no real secret to getting a lot of fans on Facebook.

It's either because you are a famous person or a well known brand / product.

For an ordinary man or woman, it will take some time, unless you do not have a problem with spending lots of money.

Of course, at the same time, there are exceptions and these are the rare ones. There are fanpages created by ordinary people that have gone viral and being liked with 100,000 fans. The fact is, in any niche or industry, there will always be exceptions – Harry Potter, Angry Birds and so on. Thousand of authors tried and failed. Thousands of games have been developed and likewise crashed. Make sense?

The Run Of The Mill Fanpage Marketing Advice Taught By The "Gurus" …

If you take a look at what these experts are teaching, you will notice one similar thing. Building a relationship with your fans is always the principle. This is not something that happens overnight. It takes time to build a relationship, establish credibility and all those other good stuff.

Are you up for that? If not, get ready for a major disappointment.

To wrap up …

A Facebook fan page is a wonderful platform but there is not any magic pill that will expand your fan base to 100,000 fans in a short period of time. If you just want to make some money, sure, Fanpage can help you to do that.

So stop thinking how did Tony Robins or Starbucks have so many fans – the answer is because they are Tony Robbins and Starbucks. But here's the kicker … nobody say you can not be a "celebrity" or "brand", unless you're not willing to commit to your own business and start putting up a fanpage to build relationship.

Source by Patric Chan

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Wedding Checklist

Getting your boyfriend to propose may be the hardest part to getting married for most women. However, it's not soon afterwards, when they are trying to turn their dreams into reality, that they realize the hardest part is still to come. With so much to do and so little time, it's best to get a checklist and start planning your wedding as soon as you've got the engagement ring.

The first thing is to set a date for your wedding. Once you have a date, you have a goal. Then comprise a list of guests. This will give you an indication of what type of events, and ceremony, you can organize. The next step is to set a financial range and budget, as well as work out who is going to pay for what.

Family and finances can sometimes get a bit tricky, so it's best to find out if it's just you and your fiancé paying, or if parents are going to contribute. If they are, then find out what and how much they are willing to do so. You do not want finances to become a big downer on the occasion, and it's best that you sort this part out as soon as possible.

Most women have dreamt about their wedding from a young age and chances are you probably know exactly what you want. However, you might have to compromise a few things for the budget, or because your fiancé has a few suggestions of his own. Write and formalize the type of wedding theme you want, so that everyone is on the same page.

Do research in venues and try to go to a wedding convention to get some ideas of what is out there. Now that you know your budget, number of people you are going to host and what you want, you can ask the venue's owner the right questions as to whether or not she can accommodate you or not.

Although you may want to organize the whole wedding yourself, think about getting an event co-ordinator in, even if it just for the actual day. The last thing you want is to be concerned about little things on your wedding day.

Consider whether you want children or not at the wedding, as this will have an influence on your guest list. This might also influence the time of wedding, as children might get tired and restless if the wedding goes on to late late in the evening.

The first part of planning is mostly to do with doing research into everything from quotations on flower decorations to finding a photographer. Six to nine months before the wedding, you can finally start booking and arranging everything.

By now, you should know what type of dress you want and start with fitting sessions if you are getting it made. You can start discussing menus with your caterer and choose flowers with your florist.

At four months, you can start sending invitations out and start your wedding gift register. It is recommended that you have the pair of shoes you want to wear at the wedding and start breaking them in. A lot of brides who wear new shoes on the day start having feet problems half way through the reception.

If you have any guests from out of town, then start finding out if they need help finding accommodation. Now is also the time to organize a rehearsal dinner for your wedding.

At two months, you should have gotten your RSVPs back and have a finalised list list. From this point on, you should just be finalizing your plans. Make the last arrangements for the cake, including the topper. Check the flower order and make sure you have all your papers for the marriage license.

At about a month beforehand, you can sort out your hairstyle for the wedding and start making appointments for your make-up, hair, nails and any other beauty touch-ups. Shop for the last couple of items, such as a guest book, and ring pillow.

In the last week, sort out the details with your co-ordinator for the day and pick up tickets and travelers checks for your honeymoon. Your wedding dress and attire should be finished now. Make sure that everything fits on everyone, from flower girls to the groom.

If you have planned and organized everything, then on your wedding you should only have to do one thing: be a beautiful bride and enjoy the day.

Source by Celeste Yates

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Why Learn Foreign Languages?

Our world is getting ever more connected and the citizens of the world are rapidly bridging national, social, and linguistic differences. When crossing cultural boundaries, language is the single most important tool. Language provides the key to broadening career and educational opportunities, enhancing the exchange of ideas and information, and of course enjoying the beauty of other cultures.

For many people who stopped learning languages ​​at school and have not been involved since then, the prospect of learning new languages ​​can be rather daunting. It can take hard work to reach a good standard and then there is the challenge of maintaining that level of profitability. But there is no reason why you should not enjoy and succeed in learning languages ​​like Hindustani or Chinese. Even though people are all different – they learn at different speed levels and have different pronunciation – they tend to be best when it comes to learning and to communicating. With the right attitude, learning techniques, and guidance, you can master any language. The many benefits are obvious.

Understand the World

"Language is the means of getting an idea from my brain into yours without surgery" – Mark Amidon

Language is the source of many misunderstandings, especially so when communicating across cultural boundaries. Although English is often known as a widely spoken and understood language in the world, it is still far from sufficient for understanding cultures of other linguistic backgrounds. It goes without saying that you gain more from a visit to a country if you can converse in the local language and actually get to know the people rather than just communicating in English with people in the tourism industry or academic elites. Use of even the most basic vocabulary helps to break down barriers and establish good relationships. It shows your respect towards the people of the country and that you take a genuine interest in them.

A basic knowledge of the destination language is a reasonably small task to achieve and should be included in anyone's preparations. Learning a selection of key words or expressions specific to your sector or profession enables you to reach out and find or provide meaning in conversations. Being able to get your message across in the language of your destination culture allows you to transition more comfortably and increasingly immerse yourself. You will be able to express your thoughts and speak for yourself, thus inviting opportunities for new friendships and gaining the trust and respect of your hosts.

Reveal the Heart of Culture

"To have another language is to possess a second soul" – Charlemagne

Words shape the way we think. We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native language. Language is not simply a reporting device for experience but a refining framework for it. Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going. It introduces you to a different way of thinking and looking at the world. Any language has its own rich knowledge base. The means to access this knowledge is the language itself.

Learning a language is like getting to know an entire cultural or social system, with references to the lifestyle, geography, history, arts, economy as well contemporary socio-cultural practices including regional dialects and diversities, clothing styles, as well as the culinary practices In the area where the language is spoken. In addition to this, while you are learning about the culture and the language of a particular region you tend to compare it with your own language and culture. While doing this you think of the similarities and differences between your language and the foreign language which leads to a far more deeper study of your own language and culture as well.

Improve Your Cognitive Abilities

"Those who know nothing of foreign languages ​​know nothing of their own" – Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Learning a new language will also help to sharpen your cognitive skills, enhance your overall learning abilities, and improve your capacity for learning and functioning in several other areas. Mental flexibility, creativity, problem-solving and reasoning skills are among the many beneficies of language study.

Learning a language up to any level is a valuable achievement in itself. Studying languages ​​is a multi-faceted learning experience, which enriches you in many ways. Even if you only take one introductory course, you will learn a great deal about the way the new language works, you will have a feel for its rhythms and sounds, and you will have an insight into the cultural background of its speakers. Of course, the further you progress, the more valuable your knowledge will become.

Widen Your Career Choices

"A different language is a different vision of life" – Federico Fellini

In an age where more and more organizations are crossing cultural boundaries, a command of foreign languages ​​helps to break the linguistic barriers and facilitates the exchange of information. When we learn a foreign language, we gradually expand the range of language at our disposal and the range of situations we can handle in that language. Learning a foreign language gives you an edge over the others since you become more equipped to face the global scenario than the people who have a limited set of linguistic skills.

If you travel infrequently or to various different countries it is difficult to decide which language to learn and what level is appropriate. Even if you only achieve a basic level, studying a foreign language shows that you are prepared to make an effort, often helps you to help the organization you are working for, enhances your personal career prospects, and boosts the satisfaction you can derive from working With people of other cultural backgrounds.

Source by Daniel Ratheiser

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The Importance Of Feedback In Communication

Communication plays a very serious role in an organization. In fact, communication is the reason for human existence. There are different forms of communication through which the intentions of people and animals and even plants alike can be passed across to another. Without communication, life will be very difficult and in fact, it will be full of chaos.

Feedback makes communication meaningful. It is the end-result of an idea and makes communication continuous. In the process of communication, the originator first gets the idea to be passed across and then think of how to get it across via exclusive channel or medium. After the coding and distribution, one expects the decoder after receiving the information or idea to give response. The response that given is called the response which may be verbal or non-verbal, that is, in words or mere smile, glance, clap, etc.

While feedback could be instantaneous as in the case of verbal conversation between two people standing or on telephone conversation or internet instant message, it could have been delayed for sometime before the response is given to allow the receiver to think what he Is given. While the former is common to an informal communication, the latter goes with formal communication via letters, memo, etc. Feedback could also be in written form in or form form or even both. It could also be in form of demonstration eg body movement, paralanguage, gesture, posture, etc.

At one time or another, people are seen being frustrated as a result of the refusal of another person to give response to their message or letter. Some got so mad that delay in such could result to minor measures or insubordination especially in a formal setting. To lovers, it means life itself. Refusal to communicate one's intentions may mal the whole relationship of a thing. All these explain the importance of feedback in communication.

The following are some of the importance of feedback in communication either in a formal or informal setting:

1. It completes the whole process of communication and makes it continuous.
2. It sustains communication process
3. It makes one know if one is really communication or making sense
4. It is a basis for measuring the effectiveness of communication
5. It is a good basis for planning on what next to be done especially statistical report
6. Communication will be useless without feedback
7. Feedback paves way for new idea generation

These points are few in number. The basis being established here is that feedback is the livewire of communication as communication is the livewire of human existence and interaction. Thus, feedback should be carefully considered before being put forward due to its significance.

Source by Oluwanisola Seun

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Teaching and Learning Modern Foreign Languages ​​in the United Kingdom – Limitations

IV. 1. Cultural and political limitations

"David Beckham's decision to learn Spanish now he has signed to play for Real Madrid next season should help fire children's interest in learning the language at school, a minister said today. The second most important European language for business (…) He will be a very useful representative to young people about how it can be cool to learn Spanish. "
Even though the government fails to promote languages ​​using traditional political strategies, they certainly do think of alternative techniques, such as using one of their most eminent role models as a representative abroad, namely David Beckham, a professional football player. Pupils, and mostly boys, who are one of the target groups as far as raising achievement is concerned, are interested in football for the vast majority. Using a famous sport's figure to give a positive idea of ​​language is indeed a clear turn!

As the minister says, Spanish has recently gained an increased interest, as it is a very common holiday destination for many British people. However, France is still a traditional place to spend holidays, and the impact of this on linguistic skills is yet to be found.

The language that suffers the most from student disaffection is German, which many comprehensive schools do not offer any longer. School Z, for instance is phasing out the tuition of German, and only Years 9, 10 and 11 are still learning this language. Business companies have expressed their concern about German, as it is still placed in priority for business use. According to the Report of the Center for Information on Language Teaching, published in November 2004, 46% of Britain's non English speaking markets are in Germany, 45% are in France, 31% are in Netherlands, and 27% are in Spain. According to the same source, the top three languages ​​causing barriers in efficient business trade are French, German and Spanish, which are the three main languages ​​offered within British schools. Unfortunately, businesses then hire natives of the foreign language needed who are also fluent in English, to help them work with prospective European partners. The lack of proficiency shown by British people in Modern Foreign Languages ​​is a hindrance to business, which to some extent is detrimental to the United Kingdom's economy. There also seems to be some kind of stigma linked to languages.

"Learning other languages ​​gives us insight into the people, cultures and traditions of other countries, and helps us to understand our own language and culture. The promotion of social cohesion "(Dfes: 2002: 12)

Although the United Kingdom has had a tradition of promoting their own culture around the world and has been involved in a huge number of other national communities, transmitting their ethos to the countries of the Empire and then the Commonwealth, the reciprocity of this cultural enrichment has Appeared to be a complex process. Today, the United Kingdom is part of the European Union, but the number of Eurosceptics in the country is not decreasing. British newspapers, mainly the tabloids, participate in displaying a negative perception of the European Union. Many British people are unaware of the implications, the organization, the institutions and the policies of the European Union. Ignorance leads to lack of interest, for the vast majority of the population. It is often claimed that Britons have few cultural links with Europe, and that they feel closer to the group of countries sometimes referred to as 'Anglosphere'. This community consists of English speaking countries such as Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Ireland, Canada and the United States. They share a common language and similar values, due to common historical links, that is to say most of these countries were once part of the British Empire. Moreover, although the British do not want to leave the European Union, recent polls have shown that the British population was against the introduction of the Euro and the European Constitution. As long as the United Kingdom does not feel that they really belong to continental Europe, the poor attitude towards language learning is unquestionably to change.

Mixed messages exist amongst the population in the United Kingdom concerning the perception of languages. Pupils in secondary schools do not show great enthusiasm for this school subject, as recent figures published in the Times Educational Supplement show: "in some cases dropout rates from GCSE language courses are extremely high – from 50% to 90%" (tes.co .uk). Pupils often do not see the point in learning a foreign language. English is spoken all around the world as a first, second or third language. Many countries use one language in their everyday life, but English is their official language. In holiday resorts, everything is made to accommodate tourists. Tour operators employ English speaking staff to avoid any difficulties for their customers.

However, a recent survey published by the Center for Information on Language Teaching suggested that "over 75% of the general population thinks that a foreign language is important; and this figure increases to 90% amongst the 15 to 34 year olds." If this figure is accurate, this means that pupils in Year 10 should, in their vast majority, choose a Modern Foreign Language as an option for their GCSE, which is not the case. At the beginning of Year 10, pupils are 15 years old. The Center for Information on Language Teaching wishes to promote languages ​​in the United Kingdom, and the interpretation of these statistical figures appears to be very optimistic.

Modern Foreign Languages ​​are not the easiest subject in the curriculum for pupils. When it is time for them to decide which option to select for their exams, they have the choice between art, drama, physical education, double manufacturing, cookery and textiles. In larger schools they may also have media, business studies, and as it is a requirement, Modern Foreign languages ​​are offered. Pupils can not help but wonder in which subjects they will gain an A * to C, which is the pass rate. It is a very difficult choice to make for a 14 year old teenager.

Often, the attitude about languages ​​that surrounds them is not very encouraging. It is a challenging and very academic subject. Pupils also does not get language support from families. For generations, their families did not have to learn a language. Or, they were not very good at it because of the failure in the educational system in teaching Modern Foreign Languages ​​adequately when schools turned into comprehensive schools.

The way English has been taught for decades has not made it easy for pupils to access a foreign language. Before the Literacy Hour was introduced at Key Stage 2, pupils were no longer taught grammar. Therefore, their Literacy Level was often quite low. Although languages ​​can help tremendously to improve Literacy skills, pupils often feel overwhelmed by the vast amount of new grammatical knowledge they have to acquire. In School X, pupils in Year 10 and 11 left primary school before the English Key Stage 2 Strategy and the Literacy hour were introduced, or they had only been taught under the newly enforced system for a year. When I started teaching them, they did not know what a verb or a subject was, whether in English or in a Foreign Language. They were unable to identify nouns in a sentence. I taught German to some classes and French to other groups, and producing accurate sentences was completely impossible for the pupils. They could not identify any of their errors.

The difference with the pupils who started secondary school in the past three years is very impressive and significant. The knowledge acquired in primary school facilitates their understanding in languages, and Modern Foreign languages ​​lessons consolidate the learning previously acquired. This is a very good example of the cross-curricular benefits that pupils can obtain from learning a language. This also shows that the initiative made by the Government to amend the way English was taught has had a beneficial impact in several ways, as it has improved pupils' skills in English grammar and this proficiency has facilitated the learning of Modern Foreign Languages.

Lower achievers can not always overcome these difficulties in Modern Foreign Languages. During the first few weeks I taught at school X, pupils had to be sent to detention systematically for not producing homework. The Head of Foreign Languages, who had about twenty years of experience in teaching, explained that generally pupils in the United Kingdom have a very negative attitude towards homework, and that if it was not clearly specified that there would be appropriate sanctions if a piece of Homework was not produced, pupils would not complete the activity set. To try to counteract these difficulties, various techniques are used by schools. Most schools require that parents sign a home-school agreement which states the responsibility of parents and pupils for their learning. It is not only a teacher's responsibility to make sure pupils produce the work expected, as parents are required to be as supportive as possible. This agreement also stresses parents' responsibility for their child's behavior in lessons. The home-school agreement is designed to involve parents in their child's education as much as possible. However, this agreement endorses the lack of motivation on the part of the pupils, and so homework is perceived as a sanction rather than a requisite for steady progress.

The National Curriculum for Languages, in its Program of Study, highlights the importance of training pupils in becoming independent learners, as does the National Key Stage 3 Strategy. In spite of this, pupils in school Z, are provided with a homework timetable to help them in organizing their working time. Pupils in Years 7, 8 and 9 are given one piece of homework a fortnight for French when they are taught four lessons in two weeks. This homework should take up to thirty minutes to be completed. It seems that pupils are still not much challenged by this schedule of work.

IV. 2. Structural limitations

In the United Kingdom, a culture of competition and achievement is bred within society, but more specifically within schools. Pupils are encouraged to take part in sports fixtures, in drama production to represent the school in the area, or in talent shows.

This competitive spirit is also rendered in the numerous tests pupils take. Although the infamous "eleven plus" exam was initially suppressed with the birth of comprehensive schools in the 1960s, the current labor government is considering introducing a new assessment at the end of Key Stage 2. This would have implications for Modern Foreign Languages ​​to some extent . Although languages ​​are not a compulsory feature yet in primary school, prior attainments are taken into account as soon as a child starts secondary school. The assessment that the Government wants to set up implicates that pupils leaving primary school with good results will be more likely to go on the rolls of schools that are on top of the list in the league table. Consequently, it can divide schools into categories, as was the case before the existence of comprehensive schools.

The figures analyzed earlier show that the dropout rate in languages ​​is already quite high, and it is even more so in schools which are towards the bottom of league table. "Teaching schools to drop languages ​​at age 14 is reinforcing an existing class division, warns a report from national education bodies. One school reported 40% of pupils in Year 11 not studying a language (last year's option choices), rising to 90% for Year 10 (this year's). With curriculum time being reduced for lower ability groups. " Indeed, the United Kingdom seems to move back towards an elitist educational system and this is not the only fact that leads to this conclusion.

Although legally the existence of an examination at the end of primary school should not be relevant to pupils' enrolment in secondary school, selection still exists under cover of a different name. The Government appears to tolerate 10% of selection. In 1995, David Blunkett, made it extremely clear in his famous speech at the Labor party conference "read my lips: no selection". Some grammar schools have high expectations of the potential candidates which will be part of their Year 7 pupils, and do not want to rely entirely on the assessments made by primary schools, and therefore have entry tests. Within the catchment area, they choose the local elite of children which will help them carry on to gain the excellent results at GCSE the school aims at, which are largely above national average results. Unfortunately, even some comprehensive schools use the same technique to hand-pick the best from the average pupils. This is known by British society and widely accepted, as many parents wish the best for their children.
However, in some less prosperous households in deprived areas, this competitive ethos is not found. Parents are more likely to lack a culture of self achievement and do not transmit these values ​​to their children. Pupils are sent to comprehensive schools, where the expectations are lower, and it is in this kind of environment that the entitlement to languages ​​at Key Stage 4 is at risk, as shown by the previous figures. To assess whether a school is within the boundaries of a less fortunate area, statisticians use the landmark of free school meals, which are only provided to families who live under the poverty threshold. Donald McLeod's article on the TES website illustrates this concern: "In 2003, 70% of schools with more than 10% of pupils on free school meals had made languages ​​optional, as opposed to 31% of the rest Some 67% schools with half Or fewer of their pupils gaining 5 A * to C's at the GCSE had made languages ​​optional, whereas only 38% of schools with higher attaining pupils had done so. "

Pupils in comprehensive schools are set targets in all their subjects. They are set end of year targets, end of Key Stage 3, and GCSE target grades. Beside, in school Z, the Modern Foreign Languages ​​department sets targets for pupils' levels of achievement for each half term.

Pupils after a few weeks in Year 7 take their CATS tests. The latter consists in a series of papers to assess their logic, literacy and numeracy skills. These tests are then used to provide predicted levels of achievement in Maths, English and Science. They are also used in some schools to set children in groups according to their ability, even in subjects like Modern Foreign Languages ​​which are not directly related to these tests, although it seems to be assumed that a correlation can be drawn.
Then, in Year 9, they have SATS, in English, Maths and Science. Their performance is recorded but also used for further predicted grades and thanks to educational software provided by the Government like the 'Autumn package' or the 'Panda package', an estimate for their GCSE grades is made.

In Modern Foreign Languages, pupils sit end of year exams and end of unit tests in the four basic skills (reading, listening, writing and speaking) every half term. This is a common assessment pattern used in many schools in the United Kingdom. "While the amount of time and money soaked up in the process is an absolute scandal, the effect on our children and their view of what education is about is even more of a worry. Mocks, trial tests and non-statutory pilots have put children on a treadmill of non-stop scrutiny. They're the most tested children in the developed world and, as a consequence, subjected to intolerable pressure – and we wring our hands when they Seem to lose interest and motivation, leaving education earlier than their European counterparts. "(Education.guardian.co.uk). Indeed, it is fair to wonder whether pupils still can enjoy their time at school for the pleasure of learning something new and different. According to the same article, there is no evidence that the number of exams improves pupils' performances.

Beside, teachers have to deliver 21 hour long lessons a week and have four periods dedicated to planning. However, these periods can also be used by the school to cover lessons when colleges are absent. The numerous assessments imply further time pressure for teachers into delivering the curriculum and to get pupils thoroughly prepared. It also generates a loss in the time allocated to planning, as most of the non contact time is taken up by marking various assessments.

School management evaluates the instruction provided by teachers according to the results that pupils receive in the various tests. Teachers are themselves set goals by their line manager, who is usually their Head of Department. These can be related to pupils' performances at examinations. In the United Kingdom, teachers are not civil servants and their capacity is related to pupils' achievement; All of this is directly linked to their opportunities to be promoted and to evolve professionally.

IV.3. Limited resources

In the United Kingdom, comprehensive schools are mainly funded by grants provided the Local Education Authorities which are themselves subscribed by the Government. The way budgets are dispatched between schools depending largely on the system in place for allocating money, which varies according to the Local Education Authorities. Some factors which are taken into account are the number of pupils on roll in the school, the size of the Sixth Form, and the achievement of the school in terms of exam results.

In Local Education Authority A, the main parameter which determinates the financial resources offered is the number of pupils following the post 16 curriculum. School Z is within the administration of this Authority. There are about 180 pupils in their Sixth Form. The money available does not enable the Head Teacher to improve the school according to his development plans. The Modern Foreign Languages ​​has had the opportunity of acquiring new resources even if the survey results are far below the national results; In 2005, only 9% of the pupils gained a grade A * to C in their GCSE exams. However, the budget is dispatched in order to make progress in the areas which need it the most. Although other departments also need to expand their resources, Modern Foreign Languages ​​appeared to be a priority. The Head Teacher's decision shows a deep interest for this area, which can only be considered considering the latest governmental choices, which relegate languages ​​to an inferior position within the curriculum as it has become a mere entitlement. By making this decision of allocating an increased budget to Modern Foreign Languages, the Head Teacher of school Z makes a statement about his views on the subject. Additionally, the school tries to obtain additional funding by making a bid to gain a specialist status in engineering.

Schools in the United Kingdom have the opportunity to be granted further financial support by becoming specialist schools in varied fields such as sports, art, technology, information technology, business, or languages. Specialist languages ​​schools, while making their bid, develop their department in order to show the existing resources and competences, and then, once the status is approved, they can expand the specific area, but also manage to bring general improvements to the school. For instance, Specialist Language School W managed to hire three Modern Foreign Languages ​​assistants and each member of the department was provided with a laptop computer. The classes which had been recently refurbished were equipped with delta projectors, and a computer suite was built to fit their needs in Information and Communication Technology.

Their status, however, implies that Languages ​​are compulsory for all pupils at Key Stage 4, and that pupils learn two languages ​​at Key Stage 3. The department consists of eleven members of staff, and offers French, German, Spanish, Italian, Japanese, Chinese, and Latin. Two new positions have been created since they successfully made their bid two years ago. Their achievement target for GCSE Modern Foreign Languages ​​is 80% of pupils obtaining an A * to C grade. The school is located in a rather affluent area and the local community is extremely supportive.

In the Times Educational Supplement, 11 March 2005 issue, the efforts made by the Government to multiply the number of Specialist languages ​​are put forward: "Mr Twigg will announce today that the Government will spend £ 30m on increasing the number of specialist languages ​​schools to 400 over the next five years. They will receive an extra £ 30,000 each year to help them to work with other schools.

It appears that the way schools are subsidized is directly linked with the potential developments of each school, and that unfortunately in some cases, it is increasingly difficult for a school to escape from the vicious circle of the impossibility to expand further. Schools suffer from lack of money, test results do not improve, which places the school at the bottom of the league table, and there before the school is not attractive to prospective pupils, which implies that the school does not benefit from additional help because the number Of pupils on roll in the sixth form does not increase.

Staffing is another issue that undermines Modern Foreign Languages ​​departments. Indeed, there are not enough languages ​​teachers in the United Kingdom at the present time, and the current numbers of pupils taking up languages ​​in post 16 education does not show any sign a potential growth. Universities face numerous closures of languages ​​faculties due to very few applicants. As an incentive, the Government offers the students starting a Post Graduate Certificate of Education a £ 6,000 grant. And the loans of these students are written off. After Newly Qualified Teachers complete successfully their first year, and obtain their full teaching status, they benefit from a 'Golden Hello', which is a £ 4,000 allowance.

In Northern England, schools are so short staffed in Modern Foreign Languages ​​that further incentives have been thought of to attract new staff. In April 2005, the French magazine Marianne published an article explaining that Hull University offered to train Modern Foreign Languages ​​teachers in three and a half months and give them a 5700 EUR permission to do so. As part of their training they spend a few weeks in France. One can not help but wonder about the quality of the training received in such a short time frame, and whether the knowledge of the newly qualified teachers will be adequate enough to enable them to be efficient classroom practitioners.

Stephen Twigg, school standards minister, announced in 2005 plans to work towards the deficit in languages ​​teaching staff, which now also needs to be trained for primary school teaching, as it is part of the Government's new strategies for Languages. "More than £ 100 million is to be rushed into schools to help elementary children learn foreign languages ​​and halt the subject of concern declination in secondaries" (TES, 2005: 1). On the other hand, as the numbers of pupils learning a language at Key Stage 4 or Key Stage 5 has been on a steady decline since the implementation of the Government initiative to change languages ​​to an entitlement, that is to say an option for GCSE late Than a foundation subject, the number of members of staff Modern Foreign Languages ​​departments has declined.

Source by Cynthia Frey

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Automated Language Translation Software and Its Quality

Many people looking to have their business documents ported to a different dialect often avoid automated translation software. Having little confidence in software's ability to perform a suitable translation, they prefer to work with expensive human interpreters to do the job.

Truth is, businesses can save a lot of money with a small investment in translation software. Instead of having all their documents worked on by a consultant, they can use the automated software to handle common translation needs, leaving the expensive manual work done for documents that can seriously affect the bottom line.

If you compare manual translations with their automated counterparts, it's easy to see the difference in quality. Since human translators are capable of a wider range of thought processes, their work will naturally be better. However, peruse them for their ability to communicate the ideas and the overall value will likely be the same.

Modern language translation software no longer use the word-per-word conversions older software used to do. Instead, new algorithms offer pretty advanced features that may surprise you with its quality. For well-written source documents, especially the translation into any new language can be quite impressive.

Do not discount translation software based on past experience. They've now evolved in massive ways and may prove to be among the most valuable tools you can buy for your organization.

Beside, you can save more time, effort and expenses especially when you are in a hurry to finish the job. You can leave it there if you want to, with just minutes or seconds, the automated language translation softaware will do the task and finish it in an instant.

Source by Laurianne Sumerset

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All In The Name of Honesty

How many times has each of us received an emotional wave followed by the justification, "I'm only being honest!" "Honesty" is like other sacrosanct words like "love", "unselfish", and "caring" that have the ability to put people's forebrains to sleep. The mere utterance of the word has the ability to rationalize many behaviors that would otherwise not stand up to close scrutiny. If you are trying to learn how to better defend your privacy and stand up for yourself, then honesty is something you had best get real clear.

The biggest reason to get this concept clear is that if you do not, it will be used against you! How? By implying that if you do not tell all, then you're being dishonest. It's always amazing to me how many of my clients struggle with feelings of disloyalty to others because they harbor feelings that they have not shared. I do not know how the myth has been propagated but it seems that it's something of a sin if you have not shared all of your feelings. If sharing feelings is being honest, then not sharing your feelings is dishonest, right? Wrong. Or at least more often wrong than right. Not sharing your feelings may be tactful, or considerate, or maybe just plain careful. Here's something that may help. Honesty is not the same thing as openness . Suppose you see something that reminds you of an old relationship while you're with a new partner. Suppose you know your new partner is a bit insecure and somewhat honest to jealousy. You have several choices. One possible choice would be to tell all about your feelings for the previous relationship. That wold be both open and honest. Another choice would be to make up a small "white lie" like nothing was going on with you, even though your partner has not noticed a difference. That would be closed and dishonest. However, a third choice might be to say that you experienced some old feelings that had nothing to do with the present relationship but that you do not feel ready to share them. That would be closed but honest.

To confuse honesty with openness is to deny that third option for yourself. It's that third option of being honestly closed that allows you to set necessary limits in many relationships. It's also sometimes referred to as maintaining your privacy. For some reason, I find that this is especially hard for some people to keep clear in relations with their parents. For many young couples, not telling their parents details about their present romance may seem like a form of dishonesty. I usually get much resistance when I counsel that they can be closed about many details without being dishonest. Perhaps it's because they do not want to risk rejection if they're honest about keeping a separate private life.

Of course it's possible to be closed and dishonest as well. If you secretly break an exclusivity agreement by having an affair, that's a clear example. Sometimes the agreements have not been so explicitly visited and then we get into the gray areas. But that will probably have to be the subject of another article.

Another reason to learn to keep some feelings private is so that you can be less tempted to share your feelings as a weapon – all in the name of being honest. If we're truthful with ourselves, all of us can remember times when we've hurt or manipulated another by sharing our "honest" feelings. You know how it's done. First act like something's on your mind but only vaguely allude to it. Then when your partner asks you what it is, you tell them that you really should not have said anything in the first place and it really is not anything important. That double message will really hook 'em. Finally, when their curiosity has swelled to a feverish pitch, they'll really press you. You finally have all the license you need and … SOCKO! Then share you feelings (and a lot of opinions about their shortcomings). "But you're ooooooonly being honest!" If I sound a bit sarcastic, let me temper it a bit by saying that I do not exclude myself from the ranks of the guilty.

A good word to remember in conjunction with honesty is "tact." Tact implications consideration for the other in what you're doing. It means you have to think about how you're doing something and the consequences that might ensue. Is it really safe for you to "let it all hang out" or is this a situation where privacy can protect? Do you really want to give that person so much access to your vulnerable feelings? Have they demonstrated that they will not manipulate those feelings to bully you in the future? … OR … Are you going to share information that will likely hurt the other? Will the benefit from the other's knowledge outweigh the pain that it will bring? Are you thinking of a compassionate way to share the information? Have you looked at your own anger and your desire to punish? These are all questions to help formulate tact. With tact, we have to exercise more choices. We do not let our unconscious lead us to impulsive action while we rationalize it as being honest. We can have tact and we can have honesty too. We just need to be clear that honesty is not the same thing as openness and that the latter is a personal choice involving our privacy.

Source by Bryce Kaye, Ph.D.

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Email Marketing – A Powerful Tool for Your Business

One of the excellent ways to get connected and engaged with your clients is using social media sites like Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. However, people claim that email marketing no longer remains effective and relevant because of the success of social media.

Stop listening to them, as these are just misconceptions. Email marketing is still alive and doing well as one of the most effective and powerful techniques of online marketing and being in touch with your clients.

Defining Email Marketing

Firstly, you must know what email marketing is, before moving towards the reasons explaining why it is so useful in business.

When a person visits your website and thinks of subscribing to your mailing list with the aim to keep in touch with you through email, it is known as email marketing. A mailing list like this is quite important if you are selling a service or product. Email marketing enables you to build customer loyalty, earn trust and promote brand awareness while encouraging your subscribers to purchase from you more often.

Email marketing has several benefits. Although, it is a great marketing tool however, unfortunately, it seems to possess a bad reputation with a few businesses, who fail to understand it fully.

Some companies are of the view that people immediately consider finding an email from a stranger and they delete it, thinking badly about their company.

This may be true to some extent, chiefly because businesses have failed to take the time for nurturing their list. Neverheless, with responsible marketing, an email marketing campaign can be made to work exceptionally well for your business.

Email Marketing Against Social Media Marketing

As explained earlier, social media sites like Facebook and Twitter are superb ways to connect with both existing and potential clients. They are ideal platforms to go for word of mouth advertising, creating strong bond with your current audience and putting yourself in front of a new audience.

Both of these tools are necessary for your business. However, you can not keep a check over who is seeing your updates or when they are seen.

Apart from this, you can not control these connections fully, as social media sites like Twitter, Facebook keep making changes without notifying how they could affect the way you are connecting with your followers.

Social media sites do not provide you the opportunity to connect people one-on-one as you can connect through emails. Using email marketing, your promotional campaigns can be fine-tuned by you, while forming a list of people who show genuine interest in whatever you are offering.

With Twitter for example, your message is competing with hundreds or even thousands of other Tweets from companies promoting similar products or services to yours. The same is true on Facebook.

Even if you have a huge number of fans, they are certainly following other pages as well, which reduces your message's effect. The same thing is true about emails but by sending a personalized email, you can gain their attention as they would actually open and read your email. The distractions present on social networks including recent status updates, chat options and new photos are not there in email marketing.

For this reason, it is important for you to make an effort and transform your followers into your email-marketing list as soon as possible. Once it is done, you have full control and authority as they are in the list of YOUR contacts. You will lose them only if they choose to unsubscribe from your email list.

How Can You Make Your Social Network Follow Your List?

It is not at all difficult. You just have to provide them with the reason for joining you. For instance, offer them something for which they would not mind giving their email address is a good idea.

You could offer a how-to guide, special offer or an answer addressing a particular issue or problem that is bothering your audience, exclusive information or special type of voucher or discount, especially for all your email subscribers.

You must select something that is not only of real value to your email subscribers, but is also of interest to your target audience.

Such actions are not enough to keep your email list active and interested. To avoid losing these valuable connections, you are required to think how you can consistently deliver information that help them remain engaged and persuade them to open the email sent by you.

Consider Your Email Subscribers as Royalty

Customers visiting your offline business or contacting you over the phone, have high expectations that they will be granted rightly and in a special way. Undoubtedly, when you deal with your customers face-to-face, you get recognized for superb customer service and for offering an excellent buying experience. What you should do is, offer the same experience to your email marketing contacts.

When a person heads towards you by subscribing and trusting you with his / her email address, he is in fact conveying you that he likes whatever you are offering and wants to know you more.

Think of it this way, you have been invited by them into their inbox. Therefore, it is your responsibility that this relationship and trust should not be abused by the bombardment of your sales pitches that keep promoting your services and products. You must nurture your email list. Try to be helpful as well as informative and send news and offers, which you consider that they like to know about.

Do not consider your mailing list like a group of faceless names. Keep in mind your ideal customer and exchange thoughts with them one to one. This makes your emails more informative and personal, strengthening the bond with your target audience.

Design a Newsletter

A perfect way to remain in touch with your email list is a newsletter. It gives you an ideal mix of updates, news, information and special offers about your business to develop engagement with the subscribers and enables them to know more about you. Newsletter is also a superb way of encouraging calls to action, may be with limited time offer.

The main purpose is to make available the relevant information, which your ideal clients want to read. However, you should be careful about not to make them bored. The information should be passionate and interesting.

Establish a Strong Bond with Your Subscribers

With the passage of time, your connection with your subscribers will grow. As it becomes stronger, the loyalty of your subscribers to your business increases and consequently, your business sales and profits get a boost. Your company will get new referrals, opportunities and mutually beneficial associations together with building new customer base.

Your Business Gets Repeat Business with Email List

If you do not use the internet world, you might go for placing an advertisement in your local newspaper or investing in flyers or using any other advertising media.

Here, you capture new customer only if a good number of people see your advertisement. However, an email list provides you the opportunity to bond and nurture with your subscribers and in the long run, you successfully form a base of loyal customers who like to purchase from you reiteratedly.

Email marketing is undecidedly one of the most effective tools for establishing a large core of new clients online apart from your regular local clients in your business.

If you realize how powerful it could be to send out emails, which result in gaining extra sales as well as leads, you will ever be able to form a marketing campaign making your business more profitable than before.

Cheapest as well as Effective Advertising Technique

Neverheless, email marketing is one of the lucrative ways for promoting any business. With the passage of time, you can form a mailing list with numerous potential customers who show deep interest in whatever you are offering by giving you their email address.

Communicating with your subscribers is absolutely free and each of your email results in huge sales.

Underestimating the Power of Email Marketing is a Mistake

Email marketing tool is either dead nor obsolete. Email marketing provides you more control and access over the message. In fact, by giving their email address, subscribers actually permit you to contact them. This action reveals their interest in whatever you have to offer.

Through email marketing, you are provided with the opportunity to form a strong relationship with your subscribers. This relationship is the one that empowers you as people like doing business with people. Looking after your list properly means your subscribers will like you more and trust as well. Ultimately, you are provided with a much better opportunity of increasing sales than your competitors.

Now you have understood the power of email marketing, you can create and run campaigns yourself and continue to establish a stronger bond with your online customers.

Becoming successful in creating a winning email marketing campaign and establishing a relationship with your customers, is certainly a big achievement of yours. This is because, you actually became successful in winning their trust and acquiring their email address is definitely a huge and a rewarding responsibility.

If you do it properly, you will see your business profits bar rise. If you do it badly, you will see your business sales to decrease and it may also damage your brand reputation.

6 Tips to Make Your Email Marketing Campaigns Productive

It Should be Interesting

Make sure you have included lots of valuable information in all your messages. It should be in a way that captures your reader's interest. Avoid sending out sales pitches or making it only about you. Add information that is actually interesting and useful for your target audience. If your subscribers think that you send emails only with the aim of enhancing your sales, they will never feel special or valued and you will fail to stop them from hiring the delete button, or unsubscribing from your list. They will not bother giving a look to your email messages any more.

Provide a Visible Link for Unsubscribing

You may consider it as a negative approach, but it is in fact a positive one. Your readers feel comfortable when they feel that they have full control and are not being pressurized to do anything. Therefore, never forget to include a link for unsubscribing in your email. Trying to hide it or not providing any link will only earn you frustration and anger of your subscribers, leading you to entirely complete opposition results of what you want to achieve.

Ask for Feedback

Feedback from your audience is necessary to make your relationship with them stronger and to enhance your email marketing projects. Therefore, keep asking for opinions, suggestions or feedback from your readers. Another way to receive passive feedback is through email marketing programs that track information regarding the number of people opening up your emails, or clicking on the links present there. All such feedbacks are essential for you to continuously improving and engaging with your audience.

Targeting the Right People

It is important to target the right people to achieve fruitful results. If you keep sending your emails to wrong customers, you will achieve nothing but their aggression and annoyance. Targeting wrong audience is simple a waste of time of both, you and the targeted people. It is better to put in your efforts and time in your campaigns targeting audience who is actually interested in hearing from you.

Try Making Your Email Messages Mobile Friendly

In this technological world, your customers now can access their email messages on their tablets or mobiles. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that you format your emails correctly to ensure that you can read them easily.

Make Exclusive Offers Only for Your Mailing List Subscribers

You can show your gratitude to your subscribers by sending exclusive special offers, which is not available anywhere on your website. Such offers can be free delivery, discounts or any other deal that attract your customers encouraging them to buy from you.

Source by Rosie Price

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The Attractive Power of a Book Well-Written: Love & Erotic Novel Which Engulfs Us All

Falling in Love

Have you ever fallen in love with someone much older than you and from the same sex? Well, it happened to Rivi, a 14 year old girl falling in love with Michaela, her literature teacher at school. And, surprising or not, Michaela has fallen in love with Rivi, and their mutual erotic love has continued for years …

This, apparently, is the core of Judith Katzir's "Dearest Anne" (the Feminist Press, 2008) who has devoted pages on pages to describe, in much detail, the erotic love between the two; Their longings for each other; Their "sexual games"; Their adductive, forbidden love. Written in beautiful, aesthetic language, as you read the book you can not put it aside; You are attracted to whatever happens between the two, at time wishing you could have been a fly on their wall …

The power of attraction

The reason for the readers' "attraction" is simple. The sexual descriptions are written elegantly and beautifully, and as much as the two women never "gotten tired" of each other and never had enough, so does the reader never dreams he has read enough. Part of it is due to the beautiful, artistic language of Judith Katzir, which makes the book not only a page-turner but an aesthetic experience in its depiction of places, characters, love and sexual attraction.

But the reader's attraction to the book is due not only to the erotic descriptions, but also for another critical point: As much as the love story between the 14 year old girl and her 27 year old teacher is "unique" for the two of them , It echoes universal love stories of people through history (not necessarily between two people of the same sex and of different age groups) and very possible echoes some of your own experiences with love and eroticism.

Existent, universal daily-life issues

Yet another reason for the attractive power of the book is the broadness of issues it brings before us: the novel circles around existential issues such as: where is the balance – or the border – between love and passion, between giving and abuse?

What motivates people to do what they do and have in the way they have? Is there "pure love" or is love actually often based on neediness, on the need to be loved and accepted?

In addition to these – and other – questions, the novel deals, among others, with issues of existential love, sickness and death, girlhood and womanhood, aspirations, disappointments, forgiving and missing opportunities (such as: If I had to live my life All over again, what would I have done differently ?).

Our personal life vis-à-vis "Dearest Anne"

By raising such important, universal issues, Katzir's book prompts us, the readers, in addition to experiencing pure pleasure in reading her book, to delve into our own life , our own fantasies and aspirations, our own love (or lack of), our Own life-experiences, sorrows and / or joyful moments. It also drives us – consciously or unconsciously – to bring up questions regarding our self-awareness, as well as our understanding – or lack of – of the way we "do" life; The way we communicate with our loved ones; The way we hurt ourselves and others and last, but not least, the fears and needs which drive us to have the way we do.


This issue of being aware to one self is deal with elegantly yet hesitantly throughout the book. Is Rivi – as 14 year old girl – aware of what she does? Is she aware of the dangers which might be posed on her way? Is she aware of what motivates her to fall in love, lie to her mother, and become obsessed with her love for Michaela? Is she aware of the (bad) relationships she has with her mother and understands how these might have driven her to fall in love with Michaela?

Once again, these questions motivate us, the readers, to think and contemplate about our own parental qualities – or lack of – if we have children and about the relationships – of lack of – that we have developed with them.

Pleasure in reading as an inspirational board to developing our own awareness

Katzir's "Dearest Anne" not only gives us pleasure in reading a well-crafted, aesthetically written courageous "love-story" (could we have had the courage to actualize our own love or other desires we might have had?), But in addition It raises in us a whole bunch of existential-philosophical questions regarding life in general. Then, if we wish (and have to courage to delve into) – the book encourages us to deal with questions regarding our own life , encouraging us to view and observe, in retrospect, our own achievements and missed opportunities (whether love-related or Otherwise).

"Dearest Anne" can become an inspirational board for us to develop our self-awareness regarding our own life, vis-à-vis the universal issues the book presents in front of us.

Source by Doron Gil, Ph.D.

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